[5][18] Members of the former insurgent movement were left out of the government. were heard first on that day. Santa Anna, joined by republicans Guerrero, and Bravo, and imperial generals Echávarri, Cortázar y Rábago, and Lobato, proclaimed the Plan of Casa Mata, which called for the installation of a new Congress and declared the election of the emperor null and void. Like, that could never happen. Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu (27 September 1783 – 19 July 1824), also known as Augustine of Mexico, was a Mexican army general and politician. Centred on provisions of independence, respect for the church, and equality between Mexicans and peninsulars, the plan gained… They teach the type of education known in Mexico as 'EDUCACION MEDIA SUPERIOR (BACHILLERATO GENERAL)' (in Spanish), and it is 'PRIVADO (SUBSIDIO ESTATAL - … One must keep in mind that a Republican, Federalist government was virtually unheard of, and that for 300 years New Spain had lived in a monarchy. [7], In 1805, when he was twenty-two, Iturbide married Ana María Josefa Ramona de Huarte y Muñiz, member of the House of Tagle of the family of the Marquises of Altamira. [citation needed], The situation did not last long. Opposition groups began to band together against him. [3][6], Iturbide is also mentioned in the Himno Nacional Mexicano, the national anthem for the country. Santa Anna retreated and fortified himself in the city of Veracruz with his superior artillery. Santa Anna would later admit in his recollections that at the time, he did not know what a republic was. One of Agustín's first encounters with the rebel army was in the Toluca Valley in 1810 as it advanced toward Mexico City from Valladolid. Historians point out that Iturbide had quite possibly all the power, influence, and support he needed before redacting the Plan of Iguala, to crown himself Emperor, and he still wrote the Plan with the clear intention of creating a throne meant for a European noble. Bravo and Guerrero wrote that they swore to abide by the Congress's decision, even if it decided to stay as a Constitutional Empire and it elected Iturbide again to lead them. Royalist forces, under the command of Colonel Torcuato Trujillo, withdrew from the area, allowing rebels to take Toluca. Lacy, Elaine C, "The 1921 Centennial Celebration of Mexico's Independence: State Building and Popular Negotiation," in William H. Beezley and David Lorey, eds. Some detractors of Iturbide insist that this demonstration was staged by Iturbide himself or his loyalists. During the Mexican War of Independence, he built a successful political and military coalition that took control in Mexico City on 27 September 1821, decisively gaining independence for Mexico. Iturbide was fully reinstated to military command in November 1820 by viceroy Juan Ruiz de Apodaca. That led to political destabilization, which was resolved temporarily when Iturbide was elected Emperor of the Mexican nation. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. During the Mexican War of Independence, he built a successful political and military coalition that took control in Mexico City on 27 September 1821, decisively gaining independence for Mexico. HIS SOUL RESTS IN THE BOSOM OF GOD."[6]. "Taxation and Tyranny: Public Finance during the Iturbide Regime, 1821-23," in, This page was last edited on 28 November 2020, at 10:03. Iturbide was then commanding royal forces pursuing Vicente Guerrero, one of the few liberal revolutionaries still in the field. We do not wish to be free if your excellency will not be at the lead of his countrymen. The promise of independence convinced the insurgents to accept the proposal. Agustín de Iturbide (Spanish pronunciation: [a?us'tin ðe itu? "[citation needed] Timothy E. Anna points out that in the months between the achievement of Independence and his crowning as Emperor, Iturbide already practically ruled the nation, as he was president of the Regency, and the junta had granted him command over all land and sea forces. | Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | Contact Us | Sitemap. For a number of Mexican autonomists, a constitutionally sanctioned monarchy seemed a logical solution to the problem of creating a new state as it seemed to be a compromise between those who pushed for a representative form of government and those who wished to keep Mexico's monarchist traditions. Born in 1783 in Valladolid, now Morelia, began his career as a soldier in the Spanish Royalist army. 144 relations. PASSERBY, ADMIRE HIM. Essentially, the idea was to bring Ferdinand VII to Mexico City to rule. The next day, Mexico was declared an independent empire. The 1812 Cadiz Constitution, which was reinstated in Spain in 1820 after the successful Riego Revolt, established a constitutional monarchy, which greatly limited Ferdinand VII's powers. I die having come here to help you, and I die merrily, for I die amongst you. However, he still insisted on a large and very well-paid army and lived extravagantly himself. Iturbide was convinced that independence for Mexico was the only way to protect the country from a republican tide. When things are viewed in this light, historian Eric Van Young states that Iturbide's seizure of the crown "seems less cynical and idiosyncratic when it comes along at the end of the independence struggle. There, he published his autobiography, Statement of Some of the Principal Events in the Public Life of Agustín de Iturbide. The School AGUSTIN DE ITURBIDE is an Educational Institution located in the town of Amaxac. [12] A key element was added at O'Donojú's suggestion: if Spain refused its right to appoint a regent for the Mexican Empire, the Mexican congress would have freedom to elect whoever it deemed worthy as emperor. Famed Mexican author José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi, El Pensador ("the Mexican Thinker"), the author of El Periquillo Sarniento, wrote about the subject at the time: "If your excellency be not the Emperor, then our Independence be damned. The sentiment of those horrified by the execution was compiled by novelist Enrique de Olavarría y Ferrari in "El cadalso de Padilla:" [2][11][12] However, events in Spain caused problems, as the very monarchy for which that class was fighting was in serious trouble. During the Mexican War of Independence, he built a successful political and military coalition that took control in Mexico City on 27 September 1821, decisively gaining independence for Mexico. ", Mexican army general and politician, 1st emperor of Mexico, Portrait as Emperor of Mexico by Primitivo Miranda, 1860, Edward A. Riedinger, "Joel Roberts Poinsett," in. [8] Opposition groups included the old insurgents as well as a number of progressives and those loyal to Ferdinand VII. [12] The offer of equality between Criollos and the Spanish-born Peninsulares assured the latter that they and their property would be safe in the new state. Iturbide's fortunes reversed after his victory when a number of accusations of cruelty and corruption surfaced. The United States was itself a republic as well, meaning Iturbide's relations with the US were on shaky ground. With this army he fought against the first independence movements in the country, fighting figures such as Miguel Hidalgo. Iturbide led the defenders. The new government was overwhelmingly people loyal to Iturbide himself. [15] Similar to the Plan de Iguala, the document tried to guarantee an independent monarchy for New Spain under the Bourbon dynasty. Iturbide was among the young Creole aristocrats who began to contemplate the possibility of separation from Spain in response to an 1820 military revolt which placed Spain under a liberal regime. Santa Anna wrote to Iturbide, explaining his reasons and swearing to sacrifice his own life if it was necessary to ensure the safety of the Emperor. Most historical accounts mention the crowd that gathered outside what is now the Palace of Iturbide in Mexico City shouting "Viva Iturbide!" The aftermath of his execution was met with indignation by royalists. [6][7] Some sources state she came from a high-ranking family in Michoacán. Guadalupe Victoria was elected as the first president, but in subsequent years, Vicente Guerrero became the first in a long line of Presidents to gain the Presidency through a military revolt after losing an election. [16][20], The National Institutional Junta was directed to create much-needed legislation in economic matters, create a provisional set of laws for the Empire, and then issue a call for a new Constituent Congress. However, in 2006, new evidence was discovered by Mexican historian Jaime del Arenal Fenochio: a letter between the two military leaders dated 20 November 1820, which also referenced a previous letter. Agustin de Iturbide is a good example of a philanthropist. Military leaders, soldiers, families, villages, and towns that had been fighting against one another for almost ten years found themselves joining forces to gain Mexican independence. [2][7][12] Others insist that the people's offer of the throne was sincere, as there was no other candidate and the people were grateful to him for the liberation of Mexico. In May 1823 he went into exile in Europe. [10], Shortly after signing the Treaty of Córdoba, the Spanish government reneged. As a younger son, Joaquín was not in line to inherit the family lands, so he migrated to New Spain to make his fortune there. Agustín de Iturbide será juzgado por la historia - Martínez Serrano. Lacy, "The 1921 Centennial Celebration," p. 201. In its inauguration, Congress swore that it would never abide for all of the powers of the state to fall into the hands of a single person or entity. "[4] In a letter to the viceroy in 1814, he wrote of how he had 300 rebels, to whom he referred as excommunicates, executed to celebrate Good Friday. That marked a turn in the war as Morelos would never again achieve the same level of competency as he had before this defeat. However, Iturbide had the advantage of having most of the former royalist army on his side. With her dowry of 100,000 pesos, the couple bought the Hacienda of Apeo in the small town of Maravatío. The local legislature held a trial and sentenced Iturbide to death. He continued to receive reports from Mexico and advice from supporters that if he returned he would be hailed as a liberator and a potential leader against the Spanish invasion. However, to succeed, he would need to put together a very-unlikely coalition of Mexican liberal insurgents, landed nobility, and the Church. However, it was not until 1838, during the presidency of Anastasio Bustamante, that the order was confirmed and carried out. "Done is the dark crime, for which we will doubtlessly be called Parricides. In their further correspondence, Iturbide and Guerrero lament the clashes, and Iturbide further attempts to convince Guerrero of his intentions of liberating Mexico. 'ßiðe] (listen); 27 September 1783 – 19 July 1824), in full Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu, also known as Augustine of Mexico, was a Mexican army general and politician. I am not a traitor, no. Many liberals and progressives also belonged to Masonic lodges of the Scottish rite, leading these branches of the opposition to be called escoceses (Scots). Agustín de Iturbide is credited as Military leader, army general, . That treatment was customary in the entrances or exits of great figures in or out of a city. [18], Conservative political factions in Mexico finally convinced Iturbide to return.[5][11]. Iturbide had tried to stop Santa Anna by inviting him to Mexico City. While Iturbide's reign lasted less than a year, it was the result of and further defined the struggle between republican and traditional ideals, not only in Mexico, but also in Europe. While the Catholic clergy supported him,[18] the coronation dashed republican hopes, and while the Plan of Iguala and the Treaty of Córdoba directed that in the event of it being impossible to instate a European ruler on the Mexican throne, a national sovereign could be chosen, some of the royalists that had supported Iturbide had hoped for a European ruler. [18] If no European ruler would come to rule México, the nation would have the right to elect a ruler by its own people. His mother was Alice Green (c. 1836–1892), daughter of Captain John Nathaniel Green, [citation needed] granddaughter of United States congressman and Revolutionary War General Uriah Forrest, and great-granddaughter of George Plater, Governor of … What do the students think? Clash Royale CLAN TAG#URR8PPP The question was how much power would be in legislative hands and how much in an executive. [7] While the aristocratic and Spanish lineage of Agustin's father was not in doubt, his mother's ancestry was less clear. Almanach de Gotha: annuaire généalogique, diplomatique et statistique. Agustín de Iturbide, also known as Augustine I of Mexico, was a Mexican army general who built a successful political and military coalition that was able to march into Mexico City on 27 September 1821, decisively ending the Mexican War of Independence. [10][11] He wrote in his memoirs that he was very worried about the future of Mexico. The crowd included Iturbide's old regiment from Celaya. In exile, Iturbide was approached by a Catholic coalition of nations that sought to enlist his help in a campaign to reconquer México for Spain. It ratified the decision, created titles for the royal family, and declared Iturbide's title to be lifelong and hereditary. Perhaps it was because of this debt that de la Garza wavered in his resolve to detain Iturbide, at first receiving him warmly but then arresting him and, on the way to his trial, de la Garza gave Iturbide command over the military escort that accompanied them and requesting that Iturbide presented himself to the nearby village of Padilla. Agustin de Iturbide Mexican Emperor In Power 1822-1823 Born Sept. 27th, 1783 Valladolid Died July 19th, 1824 Padilla Nationality Spanish Caste Criollo Agustin de Iturbide (1783-1824) was a Mexican politician and general. [18] Iturbide was also criticized for his arbitrariness and his treatment of civilians, in particular his jailing of the mothers, wives, and children of known insurgents. [1][12] Iturbide marched into Mexico City on 27 September 1821, his own birthday, with the Army of the Three Guarantees. However, Congress refused to accept his abdication, arguing that acceptance of abdication would imply that the existence of the throne was legitimate. Iturbide acquired a large personal fortune before 1816 by questionable dealings. [4][5] He was baptized with the names of Saints Cosmas and Damian at the cathedral. Iturbide was crowned by Rafael Mangino y Mendivil, the head of the Congress, in itself a statement by Congress: the state, not the church or any other power, would be sovereign. He may have been involved in the initial conspiracy to declare independence in 1809 that was headed by José Mariano Michelena in Valladolid. Much of the area now known as Central America declared its opposition to Mexico City and Iturbide's rule. Those ideas found a voice when Manuel Codorniu founded the newspaper El Sol, essentially becoming the in-house publication for the Scottish Rite lodge in its struggle against Iturbide. Iturbide recognized that although his provisional junta was working to call a new Congress, most of the nation had already accepted the Plan of Casa Mata. [12] She was the daughter of wealthy and powerful noble Isidro de Huarte, governor of the district, and the granddaughter of the Marquis of Altamira. [16], As a captain, he pursued rebel forces in the area, managing to capture Albino Licéaga y Rayón, leading to another promotion. and insist for him to take the throne of Mexico in May 1822. However, three days after Iturbide had been elected Emperor, Congress held a private session in which only it was present. These came out of Bourbon reforms in Europe that were based on the Enlightenment. Son of a wealthy Spanish named Joaquín de Iturbide and the michoacana Josefa María de Arámburu. - Duration: 7:07. martinezserrano 1,104 views. also known as Augustine of Mexico, was a Mexican army general and politician. Iturbide's remains still rest in the Metropolitan cathedral. Newest Additions. [citation needed], On 11 May 1823, the ex-emperor boarded the British ship Rawlins en route to Livorno, Italy (then part of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany),[4] accompanied by his wife, children, and some servants. Iturbide writes in his memoirs that he considered the offer, but that ultimately turned it down because he considered Hidalgo's uprising ill-executed and his methods barbaric. [18] Ferdinand VII had regained the upper hand against the liberals in Spain and increased his influence outside the country. AGUSTIN DE ITURBIDE All the information to study in Amaxac, at the Agustin De Iturbide school. Some call Iturbide's decision a coup[2][18] and state that the public support for him was orchestrated by him and his followers. Iturbide was then commanding royal forces pursuing Vicente Guerrero, one of the few liberal revolutionaries still in the field. [12], Early in the independence period of Mexico's history, even the day used to mark Independence would be based on one's political stance. [7], In the early 19th century, there was political unrest in New Spain. It is so hard to find heroes these days. [9] Iturbide insisted throughout his life that he was criollo (native born of Spanish descent). Some handwritten transcripts of imprints and correspondence related to Iturbide's reign as emperor. The Congress refused to draw up a new monarchical Mexican Constitution with a role for the Emperor. He can also been seen as the first "caudillo," or charismatic military leader, who used a combination of widespread popularity and threat of violence toward opposition to rule and would be followed by the likes of Antonio López de Santa Anna and Porfirio Díaz. Hidalgo wrote to Iturbide, offering him a higher rank in his army. [1][4][7] After that, he worked as an overseer at one of his family's haciendas for a short time, discovering he was a very good horseman. It was the first time since the mid-19th century that the date was commemorated. He later wrote that he was choosing abdication over bloody civil war. Iturbide controlled both the membership of the junta and the matters that it considered. One of Iturbide's first military campaigns was to help put down a mutiny, headed by Agustín de Iturbide He was the first leader of independent Mexico. Philanthropy is something, such as an activity or institution, intended to promote human welfare. After Iturbide, there was wide general consensus, even among the landed elite, that some form of representative government was needed. [8] According to the author Pérez Memen, Archbishop of Mexico Pedro José de Fonte y Hernández Miravete objected and did not attend. [2] Leaders such as Valentín Gómez Farías and Antonio López de Santa Anna began to conspire against the imperial concept altogether and became convinced that a republican model was needed to combat despotism.[20]. Iturbide was unaware of the penalty. The Congress convened the next day to discuss the matter of Iturbide's election as Emperor. [20] The elite turned against him when he imposed a 40% property tax. Therefore, Iturbide succeeded in bringing together old insurgents and royalist forces to fight against the new Spanish government and what was left of the viceregal government. 1) Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu(known as Agustín de Iturbide or Agustín I), was a military and political in New Spain. "AGUSTÍN DE ITURBIDE. He demonstrated his tactical skill and horsemanship by breaking Morelos's siege of the town with a well-executed cavalry charge that caused the insurgent forces to withdraw into the forest. From a balcony of the palace, Iturbide repeatedly denied his desire for the throne. To increase his popularity, he abolished a number of colonial-era taxes. Agustin de Iturbide was a Mexican revolutionist and leader of the conservative faction of the Mexican independence movement who briefly served as the Emperor of Mexico. Agustin I was born as Agustín Cosme Damian de Iturbide y Arámburu on September 27, 1783 in Valladolid, Michoacan, to José Joaquín de Iturbide y Arreguí and María Josefa de Arámburu y Carrillo de Figueroa. ", His body was buried and abandoned at the parish church of Padilla[8] until 1833. From 1810 to 1820, Iturbide had fought against those who sought to overturn the Spanish monarchy and Bourbon dynasty's right to rule New Spain and replace that regime with an independent government. By overseeing the ceremonies, Obregón could shape and consolidate his own position in power, which was then relatively weak. Agustín de Iturbide was bornon September 27, 1783 in Morelia, Mexican, is Emperor of Mexico. The two entered into negotiations, and Guerrero pledged his support to his former adversary. Iturbide's coronation was held at the Mexico City Cathedral on 21 July 1822, and his wife, Ana María, was crowned empress, in an elaborate ceremony. In a proclamation that explained their reasons, they also called for the reinstatement of the disintegrated Congress, which would then decide the fate of the nation. The Congress confirmed him and his title of Agustín I, Constitutional Emperor of Mexico, by a vast majority. During the Mexican War of Independence, he built a successful political and military coalition that took control in Mexico City When he was exiled, Iturbide was accorded a government pension, but it was never received by Iturbide. Mexican caudillo (military chieftain) who became the leader of the conservative factions in the Mexican independence movement and, as Agustín I, briefly emperor of Mexico. The new Congress would also be in charge of issuing a new Mexican Constitution. 1865, Ana María Josefa Ramona de Huarte y Muñiz, Agustín Jerónimo, Prince Imperial of Mexico, María Gizela Tunkl von Aschbrunn-Iturbide, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Agustín de Iturbide, Libertador de México", "Casa Imperial - Don Agustín de Iturbide", "Biografías y Vidas- Agustín de Iturbide", "Colección de Documentos Históricos – Don Agustín de Iturbide", "La reclusión de mujeres rebeldes: el recogimiento en la guerra de independencia mexicana, 1810- 1819", "Forma Palacio de Iturbide parte de la historia patria", "Agustín de Iturbide convocó a la primera consulta popular en México", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Agustín_de_Iturbide&oldid=991115615, People executed by Mexico by firing squad, People executed for treason against Mexico, People of the Latin American wars of independence, People of the Mexican War of Independence, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo alumni, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles needing additional references from October 2017, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2017, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu, María Josefa de Arámburu y Carrillo de Figueroa, Anna, Timothy E. "The Role of Agustín de Iturbide: A Reappraisal. Though the republican movement had triumphed, the people still held Iturbide in high regard and greatly admired him. Many military leaders who Iturbide appointed turned on him upon contacting Santa Anna's forces. The two entered into negotiations, and Guerrero pledged his support to his former adversary. The plan of Iguala was a compromise of the differing factions, but after independence, it became clear that some of the promises it had made would prove very difficult, if not impossible, to accomplish. Regardless, some encounters between the two military forces were unavoidable, as the troops of Guerrero and Pedro Ascencio (another insurgent leader) managed to force Iturbide's rear guard to withdraw from an ambush. Here's a fun plot for a revisionist history novel: George Washington begins the American Revolution, but is killed just under a year into the war. [12] An idea arose in the class that if Mexico became independent or autonomous, and Ferdinand were deposed, he could become king of Mexico.[20]. He accomplished something great during the years he was alive. [1][4], In his teens, Iturbide entered the royalist army, having been accepted as a criollo. Other accusations against Iturbide included sacking private property and embezzling military funds. [2] It was attended by the bishops of Puebla, Guadalajara, Durango, and Oaxaca. [20], On his way to exile, Iturbide and his family were escorted by former insurgent leader Nicolás Bravo, who treated Iturbide harshly. [4] Cries of "¡Viva Iturbide I!" Poinsett's Notes on Mexico are an important source as a foreign view of Iturbide's regime. Reports of a probable further Spanish attempt to retake Mexico reached Iturbide in England. On Feb. 24, 1821, Iturbide launched his own revolt by issuing the Plan of Iguala, also known as the Triguar… [13], On 27 October 1839, his remains were placed in an urn in the Chapel of San Felipe de Jesús in the Mexico City Cathedral, where they remain. [2] On 1 March 1821, Iturbide was proclaimed head of the Army of the Three Guarantees,[4] with Guerrero fully supporting him and recognizing him as his leader. [25], Liberal or republican ideas were and would continue to be embraced by creoles outside the Mexico City elite. He was solidly aligned with the Criollos. 1/4 Vicente Guerrero - Agustin de Iturbide - Duration: 5:01. [18] He landed at the port of Soto la Marina on the coast of Nuevo Santander (the modern-day state of Tamaulipas). [7] Iturbide's supporters filled the balconies overlooking the chamber. The old Mexican nobility kept their titles and coats-of-arms close at hand, ready for a return. Ferdinand's resurgence as a ruler in Spain and his clear intentions to reconquer Mexico meant that no European nation was willing to recognize Mexico's independence, and most broke off economic ties with the new state. [27] The Mexican Army benefited from the celebrations with new uniforms and equipment, and there was even a re-enactment of Iturbide's triumphal entry into Mexico City.[28]. [8] In 1816, the viceroy relieved Iturbide of his command for corruption and cruelty. Poinsett indicated the empire was not likely to be enduring, but the US still recognized Mexico as an independent country. Start studying Agustin de Iturbide. They were initially greeted enthusiastically, but soon, they were arrested by General Felipe de la Garza, the local military commander. Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu (Spanish pronunciation: [aɣusˈtin ðe ituɾˈβiðe] (); 27 September 1783 – 19 July 1824), also known as Augustine of Mexico, was a Mexican army general and politician. By doing so, they called for a constitutional monarchy. Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts. [8] Then, in 1814, he was named the commander of forces in the Bajío area of Guanajuato, where he continued to pursue the rebels with vigor[16] in a strongly contested area,[8] and was Morelos's principal military opponent from 1813 to 1815. On the stand is an inscription in Spanish that translates to Known as: Agustin de Iturbide: Childrens: Agustín Jerónimo de Iturbide y Huarte, Sabina de Iturbide y Huarte, Salvador de Iturbide y Huarte, Sister Margarita of Jesus: During the French Intervention the country would face Civil War amongst conservative, Catholic, Europe-adherent monarchists led by the ironically liberal Maximilian I of México, and liberal, masonic, anti-clerical, reformist and United States-adherent liberals led by the American-backed Benito Juárez. One interesting twist to the story is reported by Mexico City daily La Jornada, which states that Iturbide held the first popular referendum in Mexico. The plan envisioned a monarchy, thus assuring the support of the royalists as well. Agustín de Iturbide, in full Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu known as Augustine of Mexico, was a Mexican army general and politician.During the Mexican War of Independence, he built a successful political and military coalition that took control in Mexico City on 27 September 1821, decisively gaining independence for Mexico. Agusti­n de Iturbide (1783-1824) was a conservative military leader who won Mexican independence from Spain and then ruled as Emperor Agusti­n I in 1822-1823.The They teach the type of education known in Mexico as 'EDUCACION BASICA (PREESCOLAR GENERAL)' (in Spanish), and it is 'PUBLICO (FEDERAL TRANSFERIDO)' controlled. Agustín de Iturbide Military and Mexican politician He was born on September 27, 1783 in Valladolid(Michoacan, Mexico). The Mexican independence movement then performed a curious about-face. For those reasons, no European noble would accept the offer of a Mexican crown. [1] Iturbide gathered and sent troops to combat Santa Anna who did not put up a strong resistance. After the outbreak of the War of Independence in 1810, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla offered Agustín de Iturbide the rank of general in the insurgent forces. The two came together behind an agreement known as the Iguala Plan. Santa Anna considered escaping to the United States but was stopped by Victoria. All existing laws, including the 1812 Constitution, would remain in force until a new constitution for Mexico was written. Iturbide's strategy of defining a plan and using the military to back it up started a trend in Mexican politics that would dominate until the 20th century. To attract the disparate parties involved in the scheme, the plan offered three guarantees: Mexico would be independent from Madrid, Roman Catholicism would be the official religion, and all inhabitants of the new nation, later México, would be considered equals, with no distinction being made between Spaniards, Creoles, Mestizos, etc., thus eliminating the complicated caste system that had been used until then and abolishing the use of slaves in the territory of the new nation as well.

what is agustín de iturbide known for

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